Why do we worship as we do?

Our Liturgy

We share in worship forms used by the earliest Christians and which developed over time and were revised during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th and 17th centuries. Even after the changes of nearly two thousand years of use, however, Christian liturgy is organized around two basic poles: the public reading and preaching of Scripture (the ‘Service of the Word’), and the celebration of the Lord’s Supper in memory of his death and resurrection (the ‘Service of Holy Communion’). In both of these sacred acts, we worship God by preparing ourselves to receive his gracious presence and work in our lives. At Grace and Peace Presbyterian, our worship is shaped in accord with the Directory for the Public Worship of God of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church while drawing on the faithful heritage of the church’s worship that precedes and follows the Protestant Reformation.

Some frequently asked questions about our worship:

How do I participate? Throughout the worship folder you will see parts for the “All.” That’s you, of course! The liturgy involves you in the worship of God. You are not a spectator but a participant. In fact, the literal meaning of the word liturgy is the work of the people. A helpful way to realize this in your own experience of the liturgy is to treat the entire service as one giant prayer to God. If you’re new to a liturgical way of worship, it may take a few times to catch on. That’s okay!

Why are some of the prayers scripted? Some of our prayers are prayed in common with thousands of other worship gatherings worldwide and teach us that we are not a schism or sect, but share with faithful believers everywhere. Written prayers put our affirmations of God’s character together with our Scripture-based confessions of sin, requests and hopes. They lend us words to pray when we have trouble articulating what is in our hearts. We pray them with the same sincerity and urgency as when we pray extemporaneously.

Why does the minister lead Worship from the Communion Table and preach from the Pulpit? Our minister follows the example of the reformer John Calvin who led worship from the Table but went up to the Pulpit to preach. The practice of reserving the pulpit for exclusively preaching (not singing or making announcements etc.) emphasizes the importance of preaching. The communion table, like the family table in your home is better suited for family communication and sharing.  During the Lord’s Supper liturgy the minister represents Christ through word and action as all gathered together around to share together.
Why is there so much singing? Music has a unique way of helping us express the deepest parts of ourselves. That’s why nearly every culture on earth uses singing to mark special moments. Our encounter with the living God in worship is the most profound of moments, so we cannot help but sing our praises to God!

Why do you use the Apostle’s Creed and Nicene Creed? Why do they refer to the “catholic” church? These Creeds were developed by the leadership of the early church. They prayerfully studied Scripture and formulated them as faithful summaries of the core beliefs of Christianity, and most Christians have been using them ever since. In these we profess belief in “one, holy, catholic, and apostolic church.” The term “catholic” simply means universal, single, or worldwide. The churches that do not use these creeds often believe what they affirm, but may prefer to give the impression that they have discovered the faith independent of other Christians with whom they differ in some ways.

Is the minister forgiving my sins during the Declaration of Pardon? Is that right? No, that’s not our practice. Only God can forgive sin. And God charges his ministers with pronouncing the forgiveness that he eagerly extends through Christ Jesus. The Bible promises “if we confess our sins, God is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness” (1 John 1:9). That’s what the minister proclaims aloud to assure anyone who has confessed their sins that they are indeed forgiven by the one death and resurrection of Jesus.

The Power of One

The Church today would be a different kind of place if it were not for a short, dark-skinned, red-bearded, half hermit who single-handedly fought an empire for the truth of the Gospel. For much of the fourth century, A.D., it was Athanasius contra mundum—“Athanasius against the world”—and Athanasius won. One letter. To some historians his was a battle not worth fighting. His argument hung on the stroke of a pen, a single letter, one iota—the Greek letter “i.” But embedded in that slender distinction was the essence of the Christian faith, and Athanasius would defend it with his life. “We are contending,” he wrote, “for our all.” Up to this point, the Church’s major threats had all come from outside—Roman emperors who sought to work their will on Christians who steadfastly maintained that Jesus is Lord and not Caesar, and Greek philosophers who presented questions that the Church, in time, developed the ability to answer. Bishops, who led God’s people after the death of the apostles, and whose chief duty is to guard the deposit of faith entrusted to the Church, shed much ink—and much blood—defending the ideals and ideas of Christian faith against the heavy tide of a hostile and haughty world. But by the early 300s, egos and ambitions had begun drawing battle lines within the Church. Christians were fighting Christians over theological positions. Most of the differences formed around explanations of the Trinity: Did Christians worship one God, or three? Was the Father greater than the Son and Spirit, or equal? Then around 318 came an upstart church leader named Arius, asking the question to rattle all questions: Was Jesus even God at all? One word. The distinction boiled down to a single word, distinguished by the single Greek iota we have just mentioned. Was the Son of the same substance (homoousios) as the Father, or was he merely of a similar substance (homoiousios) as the Father? It was a controversy that not only occupied the minds of scholars but also the marketplace banter of everyday folk. It demanded the attention of the Emperor Constantine, who summoned bishops from East and West to an unprecedented gathering in the city of Nicea, in A.D. 325. When their two month meeting had ended, the resulting creed accurately declared Jesus Christ to be “very God of very God, begotten not made, of one substance (homoousios) with the Father. Arius was declared a heretic, deposed and disgraced, and everyone assumed that the matter was closed. Yet the matter continued to confuse and divide. Constantine, who, like many leaders, valued unity of their institutions over the truth of the Gospel, ordered the new bishop of Alexandria to reinstate Arius as a member in good standing, a sharer in the Church’s communion. One man. But the new bishop was a man named Athanasius, who promptly told the Emperor that he could forget it. According to one story, Athanasius stopped the Emperor’s procession through the streets one day, grabbing the horses of the Emperor’s carriage by the reins—an act that could have gotten him instantly killed by the Emperor’s guards—in order to warn the great Constantine that these matters of the Christian faith were even greater than he was. ] The consequences were that important, and this is why: If the Son is a created being, not of the same substance as God, then the Son is not God. If the Son is not God, then his birth in the person of Jesus is not the incarnation of God. If God is not truly incarnate in the person of Jesus, then his atoning death is worthless. “For he alone,” Athanasius wrote, “being Word of the Father and above all, was able to re-create all, and was worthy to suffer on behalf of all and to be an ambassador for all with the Father. For this purpose the incorruptible word of God entered our world. The Word is God from God; for ‘the Word was God’” (John 1:1). In other words, if Jesus is anything less than God—whether angel, or exalted teacher, or new age cosmic avatar, his death and resurrection cannot be the atoning sacrifice that breaks the curse of human sin. We can say that Jesus is our Savior, but if the reality of Jesus as God incarnate does not undergird our faith, we are just engaging in wishful thinking. Naturally, Athansius’ defiance did not win him any friends at the imperial palace. Constantine’s opinion of the young bishop took such a turn for the worse that he banished him to the uttermost western part of the Empire, sending him from Egypt to Gaul (modern France) in the dead of winter. It was the first of five exiles he would endure throughout his 45 years as bishop, as he resisted imperial pressure for the sake of the Gospel. Several emperors came and went during Athanasius’ lifetime, and he would be allowed to return—always to the delight of the people of Alexandria. But then imperial pressure would heat up again, Athanasius would take his place in the fire, and no one who flinched from the truth of the Gospel would be allowed a moment’s rest in his presence. Athanasius recognized that the Incarnation is a mystery. No one could fully understand it. But there are those whose pride, arrogance, and self-interest would not allow them to believe. And Athanasius would not keep silent while they robbed God of his power and the Gospel of its truth. “We take divine Scripture and set it up as a light upon its candlestick, saying: ‘very Son of the Father, natural and genuine, proper to His essence, very and only Word of God is He…’ But let them learn that ‘the Word became flesh;’ and let us, retaining the general scope of the faith, acknowledge that what they interpret wrongly has a right interpretation.” Other bishops, fearing a church split on their hands, pressed the compromise of the homoiousios—that Christ was of similar, and not the same, substance as the Father. The change in the Greek word was so small—just one letter—that one would hardly notice it, a change in pronunciation so small that those reciting the creed could ignore it. But to Athanasius it was the difference between life and death. “God Himself made the decision to take on flesh and to become man and to undergo the death of the Cross, that by faith in Him, all who believe may obtain salvation…. Only so is our salvation fully realized and guaranteed.” He would die, in 373, before the fruit of his labor could be seen. But, in 381, bishops at the Council of Constantinople would uphold the doctrine of the deity of Christ that Athanasius taught. The Nicene Creed would survive as the accepted understanding of the Trinity and of the Person of Christ. The Church would go on, by the power of the Holy Spirit, to proclaim a pure Gospel to this day—because of the power of one letter, one word, and one man to demonstrate that the truth matters.


Redeemer Broadcasting Network in St. Mary’s County

There is a wonderful new radio station here in St. Mary’s County!

WXMD 89.7 FM features excellent teaching programs and edifying music. Grace and Peace is a supporter of WXMD and encourages everyone to listen! Tune your home and automobile radios.

My soul complete, in Jesus stands- 1865 Grace W. Hinsdale

My soul complete, in Jesus stands!

It fears no more the law’s demands;

The smile of God is sweet within,

Where all before was guilt and sin.


My soul at rest, in Jesus lives;

Accepts the peace his pardon gives;

Receives the grace His death secured,

And pleads the anguish He endured.


My soul its every foe defies,

And cries—‘Tis God that justifies!

Who charges God’s elect with sin?

Shall Christ who died their peace to win?


A song of praise my soul shall sing,

To our eternal, glorious King!

Shall worship humbly at His feet,

In whom alone it stands complete.

GREAT DEVOTIONAL POETRY (from various public sources)



If you are not familiar with this poem, you need to be. Donne composed this piece near the end of his life when he was facing death (circa 1631). John Donne (pronounced ‘dun’) lived a contemporary of Shakespeare in London England between 1570 and 1640. He was renowned in his time as a ‘wit,’ a brilliant university educated member of the lower gentry classes. He was a cut above Shakespeare who had no university education and whose father was a glove maker.

John Donne had expectations as a young man and attached himself to James I royal court in the hope of ‘advancement’. He blew any prospects he might have had when he married, against her parents’ wills, a lady called Ann Moore. She was his darling dear and sweetheart, whereas in those days a person of any pretension married always by stratagem to enhanced the family fortunes, but not for love.

Donne had been a profligate in his earlier youth; a playboy, we might have called him these days. His poetry of his youth reflects this amorous and lascivious character. His attachment to Ann Moore brought him into line; but ruined his finances and outlook.

Ann died quite early in life, and Donne was devastated. Now a widower his attachment to Ann began to mature into a devout devotion to God. His career picked up again a little and over time he rose in the Anglican Church to occupy the position of Dean of St Pauls’ Cathedral in London (not the Wren building but the previous building before it was destroyed by fire).

During this development and elevation to Dean, his poetry moves rapidly away from his early rakish lasciviousness and heads towards the devotional poetry of his later years. This ‘Hymn to God the Father’ is thus a late poem of his; one of his final few. As he contemplates his demise, he is overcome with a sense of his own sinfulness, and he wonders how he will stand at the judgment. Donne evokes all the anguish of the “wretched man” in Romans 7:24 before he sounds a final note of hope that Jesus will rescue him at the last day. There is a wonderful play on the word “done” in this poem, and you may note that it can either mean “done” (sins committed, sins forgiven, or “Donne” (as in John Donne). It really is beautiful, and you can read the full text below.

Hymn to God the Father

Wilt Thou forgive that sin where I begun,
Which was my sin, though it were done before?
Wilt Thou forgive that sin through which I run,
And do run still, though still I do deplore?
When Thou hast done, Thou hast not done;
For I have more.

Wilt Thou forgive that sin which I have won
Others to sin, and made my sins their door?
Wilt Thou forgive that sin which I did shun
A year or two, but wallow’d in a score?
When Thou hast done, Thou hast not done;
For I have more.

I have a sin of fear, that when I’ve spun
My last thread, I shall perish on the shore;
But swear by Thyself that at my death Thy Son
Shall shine as He shines now and heretofore:
And having done that, Thou hast done;
I fear no more.

The Church Visible and Invisible

Is Membership in a local church really necessary?

What shall we think of someone who refuses to join a church or is removed from the membership of the church without joining another congregation?

The Rev. Dr. Jeffrey K. Boer, Pastor of Sharon OPC in Miami Lakes, Florida, addresses these questions in the following sermon.

Formal church membership is a covenantal obligation for the Christian, as Dr. Boer notes in the following message.

Today and next Sunday I want to speak about why it’s important to join the visible church of Jesus Christ.  Many people are confused as to how they should view the church of Jesus Christ.  Our creeds, the Westminster Confession of Faith and Westminster Larger Catechism, speak about a distinction between the visible and the invisible church.  This doctrine of the distinction between the visible and invisible church is a helpful doctrine if we understand what’s intended by those terms, “visible church” and “invisible church.”  Unfortunately, this doctrine has been so misunderstood and so abused that many ministers and theologians prefer not to even use those terms anymore.

You see, a lot of people think this way: “There are basically two ways of looking at the church.  There’s the visible church, which is denominations and congregations and having your name written down on the membership rolls of a congregation.  And then there’s the invisible church which is composed of all true believers who are really saved.  The visible church,” they reason, “is composed of some true believers and some hypocrites and people who are either purposely ‘faking’ belief in Christ, or who think they’re true believers but they’re not.”

Having those two definitions in mind, some of these same people then take the next logical step and say, “Now, what’s most important after all?  That I have my name on the membership rolls of a church, or that I really believe?  Why, the important thing is that I’m really a Christian, that I’m really a true believer.  So who cares about membership?”

Now, given that understanding of things, being a member of the visible church is then pretty much optional, isn’t it?  And so what’s happened is that there are many people today who say they’re believers, but who, for one reason or another, aren’t members of the visible church.  Either they’ve never joined the church in the first place, or they were members once, but they just let things slide so that they’re members no longer.  Or perhaps they’ve moved away and never joined another church in their new location.  Or maybe the church they joined did something they didn’t like, so they left and started attending another church and never joined that church.  Or possibly they no longer even attend church any more, thinking to themselves, “Well, as long as I’m a true believer, I’m a member of the invisible church and that’s what counts, after all.”

Well, I want to make sure that you understand: that’s not what the framers of our confession and catechisms had in mind when they talked about the visible and invisible church!  And that’s not the concept of the church that the Scriptures teach us!

Nowhere do the Scriptures give us the impression that membership in the visible church is optional, or that it’s unnecessary.  Nowhere do the Scriptures teach us that as long as a person believes the Gospel, he’s saved, regardless of whether or not he joins the visible church.  That may be what you’ve heard in a Billy Graham Crusade or in some other evangelistic ministry, but that’s not the Biblical view!

The only reason the distinction between the visible and the invisible church needs to be made is to teach people that visible church membership alone can’t save them.  That’s what the Roman Catholic Church was teaching during the time of the Reformation.  Many people believed that as long as they were members of the visible church and partook of the sacraments, they were automatically saved.

But the Scriptures clearly teach that being a member of a church and partaking of the sacraments, by themselves, saves no one.

You must also be a sincere believer.  You must also be one who has true faith in Jesus Christ as He is revealed in the Scriptures.  Church membership alone can’t save you!

But never, anywhere in the Scriptures or in our creeds – never are we given the impression that the visible church is optional or unnecessary.  In fact, the Scriptures and our creeds teach us the exact opposite!

I want to take some time today and next Sunday to look at the Scriptures and at our creeds, as well as at some of the writings of our forefathers in the faith on this matter.  I want to show you how clearly God’s Word speaks regarding the importance of membership in Christ’s church.

Let’s start with the Scriptures so that you can see that those positions stated in our creeds and explained by our forefathers are Biblically derived.

I would direct your attention, specifically, to Acts 2:47 which I’ll quote first from the KJV: “And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved.”  (The NIV says And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved.”)  Either way, we see that those who are called, “saved,” were added to a visible, tangible body, the church.

The text says that “The Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved.”  The Lord added to the church, His covenant body, those who should be saved, and that’s the way it’s always been.

If you look at Acts 2:37, Peter has just finished preaching his sermon at Pentecost.  The Holy Spirit has been poured out.  Tongues of fire have rested on the apostles, and now Peter is preaching a sermon.  And in summary, he says, “This Jesus Christ that you Jews crucified and put to death on the cross has been raised from the dead, according to the OT prophecies, just as He said, and now this same Jesus has been exalted, and is sitting on the highest throne in heaven, with all power!”

So in other words, you all are in big trouble!”

And the Jews were immediately convicted.  V. 37 says, “When the people heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and the other apostles, ‘Brothers, what shall we do?’”

Now I want you to take careful note as to Peter’s response to that question.  V. 38 tells us, “Peter replied, ‘Repent and be baptized.”

In other words, “Repent and join the visible church.”

He says, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven.  And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.  The promise is for you and your children [That’s the same covenant promise given in the OT to the Jews and their children, but now he says it’s even…] for all who are far off – for all whom the Lord our God will call.”

That meant that now, even the Gentiles, who once were far off from those covenant promises – even those Gentiles are now given those same covenant promises, if they will repent and join Christ’s body, the church.

V. 40 continues, “With many other words he warned them; and he pleaded with them, ‘Save yourselves from this corrupt generation.’”

And then v. 41 says, “Those who accepted his message…” raised their hands and said, “I’m a believer,” and they were saved?  No, that’s not what it says!

“Those who accepted his message…” walked down the aisle and knelt in front of the altar and they were saved?

No!  That’s not what it says either.

Here’s what the text says:

“Those who accepted his message were baptized, and about three thousand were added to their number that day.”

And then a little later, v. 47, the verse we just read, says, “The Lord added to their number [meaning the number of those added to the membership rolls of the visible church”] daily those who were being saved.”

When these people believed, they were baptized.  And when they were baptized, they were added to the number of those who were members of Christ’s covenant body, the church.

A lot of people think being on the membership rolls of a church is not necessary.  A lot of churches don’t even have membership rolls.  But if that’s the case, then they don’t understand the Scriptures.

You find this same process all through the NT Scriptures.  Those who believed joined the visible body of Christ and became part of the “number” of that group.  If they had children, their children were also baptized into Christ’s body, the visible church.

This was nothing new.  In the NT, baptism replaced OT circumcision as the sign and seal of entrance into membership in God’s covenant.  This sign and seal of the covenant was given to the children of believing parents in the OT, in most cases, while they were still infants, only 8 days old.  Baptism, the sign of covenant membership in the NT, is also to be given, therefore, to all the children of believing parents.  If believers in the OT refused to circumcise their infant children, they weren’t allowed to be members of the covenant or to partake of the Passover.  It’s a great sin to refuse the covenant sign of baptism to the children of believers.

If those who are baptized into covenant membership later fail to live as God’s covenant people, once they become “of age” themselves – if they’re found to be living in unrepentant sin, or if they refuse to profess their own faith in Jesus Christ, they’re to be disciplined by the church and exhorted to repent.  And if they fail to repent, those members of the church are to be cut off from the covenant by being put out of the membership of the visible church.  That’s what the Bible teaches!

Duane Spencer, a minister in the OPC who is now dead, wrote a book entitled, Holy Baptism:  Word Keys Which Unlock the Covenant.  It’s one of the best books on the mode of baptism in print.

Spencer shows from the Scripture that sprinkling or pouring, from above, is the proper Biblical mode of baptism, even though we would recognize that those baptized by the improper mode of dunking or immersion have still been truly baptized.  But the mode of baptism that’s taught by Scripture is sprinkling or pouring “from above,” just as the Holy Spirit, Whose cleansing is represented in water baptism, comes down upon men “from above.”

But I want to quote from the introduction of Spencer’s book, since it deals with our topic for today: membership in the visible church (This introduction was written by James B. Jordan):

Holy Baptism is the sign and seal of the covenant.  It is not the sign and seal of eternal election, for God alone looks on the heart.  Man looks on the outward appearance, and we as Christians need to know whom we are to count as and treat as fellow Christians.  Do we count as Christians those who have a flaming testimony?  Or only those who speak in tongues?  Or only those who talk about spiritual things the same way we do, whom we feel at home with?  The answer of the Bible, and of the Church of all ages is this: We count as Christians those to whom God has given the visible sign of baptism, provided they have not been excommunicated from the visible church… Thus we always count our children as Christians and treat them as such…The sprinkling church thus does not presume to read the hearts, but treats only of the visible things, leaving the invisible to God.  [James B. Jordan in Duane E. Spencer, Holy Baptism:  Word Keys Which Unlock the Covenant (Tyler, TX: Geneva Ministries, 1984), pp. xi-xii.]

That means that we do not treat a person as a Christian, the moment they say they believe in Jesus Christ.  We treat them as a Christian when they identify with Christ, by joining His covenant body, the church.

It was no small thing, in the NT, to be cut off from the visible church.  To be outside the church meant to be outside the covenant.  And the promises of the Gospel are made only to those within God’s covenant.  To be outside the body of Christ means to be outside of Christ.  We don’t want to be outside of Jesus Christ.  In the Bible, the only people who were considered to be in Christ, were those who were members, in good standing, in Christ’s body, the visible church.  And this is so plain on the face of the whole NT, it’s a wonder people have missed it!

Listen very carefully to what the WCF says in summarizing what the Bible teaches about this matter.  You can follow along in the back of your blue, Trinity Hymnals, if you wish, on p. 686.  Either many people don’t read their confession of faith or they’ve simply missed this point:

WCF XXV:II.  The visible Church [Here it gives a brief description of the visible church and then it continues, “The visible Church…”] …consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion; and of their children: and is the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ, the house and family of God, out of which there is no ordinary possibility of salvation.

There you have it: There is no ordinary possibility of salvation outside of the visible church!  That’s what the Westminster Assembly found that the Scriptures teach.  That’s what the brightest and most sanctified, theological minds in all of England and Scotland concluded from God’s Word.  And they weren’t alone.

The Belgic Confession, written prior to the WCF, is even more pointed on the matter.  Article XXVIII is entitled, “EVERY ONE IS BOUND TO JOIN HIMSELF TO THE TRUE CHURCH.”  The title kinda gives away the point, I realize!  But here’s what it says:

We believe, since this holy congregation [speaking of the visible church in general, not an individual congregation – JKB] is an assembly of those who are saved, and outside of it there is no salvation, that no person of whatsoever state or condition he may be, ought to withdraw from it, content to be by himself; but that all men are in duty bound to join and unite themselves with it…

And that this may be the more effectually observed, it is the duty of all believers, according to the Word of God, to separate themselves from all those who do not belong to the Church, and to join themselves to this congregation [again, that’s not talking about a particular congregation, but the congregated body of Christ’s church in some location – JKB], wheresoever God has established it, even though the magistrates and edicts of princes were against it, yea, though they should suffer death or any other corporal punishment.  Therefore all those who separate themselves from the same or do not join themselves to it act contrary to the ordinance of God.

Did you feel the force of that statement?  It says you must join the visible church, even if that means you’ll have to suffer punishment at the hands of the civil government.  Even if it means you’ll be put to death by the magistrate, you must join the visible church of Jesus Christ!

Both of these creeds follow the Biblical teaching of John Calvin, that prince of exegetes, who taught the same thing in numerous places in his writings.  For example, here are two questions and answers from Calvin’s Genevan Catechism:

Master [That’s how Calvin addresses the student – sort of like “Mr.”  The student is asking a question here.].  Why do you subjoin forgiveness of sins to the Church?  [In other words, the student is asking, “Why is it that the forgiveness of sins can be received only in conjunction with the visible church?”]

Scholar.  Because no man obtains it without being previously united to the people of God, maintaining unity with the body of Christ perseveringly to the end, and thereby attesting that he is a true member of the Church.

Master.  In this way you conclude that out of the Church is nought but ruin and damnation?

Scholar.  Certainly.  Those who make a departure from the body of Christ, and rend its unity by faction, are cut off from all hope of salvation during the time they remain in this schism, be it however short.  [John Calvin, “The Genevan Catechism” in Tracts and Treatises vol. II (Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1983.  [Vol. 2 is a reproduction of the Calvin Translation Society edition of 1849]), p. 52.]

John Calvin taught, and our creeds agree, that the Scriptures teach this truth: “Outside of the Church is nothing but ruin and damnation.”

I would not be doing my job as a minister of the Word of God if I didn’t point that out to you.  This is information that every person on the face of this earth needs to know!  “Outside of the Church is nothing but ruin and damnation.”

Now of course we know that God is able to save people that never join the church.  God sometimes does some rather extraordinary things that are beyond our comprehension.  That’s why I appreciate the way the WCF puts this truth.  It says that outside the visible church, there is no “ordinary” possibility of salvation.

The thief on the cross was saved, and we know that he wasn’t baptized into the visible church while he hung on the cross next to Jesus.  But that was certainly an extraordinary case.  After all, he couldn’t join the church, since he’d be dead in a few hours.  And when you think about it, he did make a public profession of his faith in Jesus Christ as he hung upon the cross next to Jesus.

And then, Jesus Christ, the Head of the Church, personally and publicly, received him into membership in His body when He said to him, in Luke 23:43, “I tell you the truth, today you will be with me in paradise.”

I’m sure the same would be true of a person today who truly believes in Jesus Christ, and who fully intends to join the church as soon as possible, but who perhaps dies suddenly before that happens.  Or consider a child of believing parents who dies shortly after he’s born, or even before he’s born, and so isn’t baptized.

We would consider such individuals to be saved, nonetheless.  But those are “extraordinary” situations.

And even if we were to allow for the possibility that God, in His sovereign power, could decide, immediately and supernaturally, and apart from any of those outward means of preaching, and church membership, and the sacraments, to zap someone with salvation, we’d still have no basis on which to expect such things.

We have no promise, no revelation on which to hope for such things.  When God lays out before us the only way of salvation in the Scriptures, then that way is the only basis for our sure hope of salvation.  Any other way of salvation is merely wishful thinking on men’s part.

So let’s be perfectly clear.  According to the Scriptures, as understood in the WCF, and as understood in the Belgic Confession, and as understood by John Calvin, (and many, many others could be added), there is no ordinary possibility of salvation for you, if you refuse to join the visible church!  If you refuse to join yourself to the body of Jesus Christ, you don’t have any Scriptural basis on which to hope for salvation.

And it should, of course, go without saying, that that means you must be a member of a true church and not an apostate one.  A person could be a member of the Mormon Church, for instance (if you want to even call that heretical group a church), and still not be a member of Christ’s true body.  The Scriptures command us to join with a church that preaches and teaches the whole counsel of God.  That means that we should join a Reformed and Presbyterian church, because that’s the only kind of church that seeks to proclaim God’s Word in all its fullness.

Now we know that there are no perfect churches, of course, but it’s our duty to join with the most faithful church we can find.  If we would have the true God as our God, then we must have God’s true Word as our guide.

The very first Commandment, in Exodus 20: 3, says, “You shall have no other gods before me.”

Now what does it mean to “have” a God?  And how do we “have” a God?  Well, think about it, how do you “have” a husband or a wife?  How do you “have” a spouse?  Do you “have” a spouse the moment you say, “I love you?”

“I love you.  There, now you’re my spouse.”

No.  It doesn’t work that way.

Even if you’re really, truly in love with this other person, does that mean you “have” them as your spouse?  No.

What about if you’re living together?  If you’re living with them and you see them every day and every week, does that make them your spouse?  No.

You “have” them as your spouse only when you enter into covenant with them, that is, when you marry them.  Only then are they your spouse, by covenant, not before!

Well in the same way, God says, “Don’t ‘have’ any other gods before me, and that implies the opposite: you must have Him as your God.  And you get Him as your God by entering into covenant with Him.  Apart from that covenant, you see, you have no claims on God.

In fact, John Calvin makes an interesting statement in this regard in his comments on Psalm 24:7.  He says, “…for what is the purpose of the preaching of the Word and the administration of the sacraments, of religious gatherings and of the whole external order of the church except to unite us to God?”  [John Calvin, Commentaries, vol. IV, pp. 409-410.  Comment on Psalm 24:7.]

The outward preaching and hearing of the Word of God and the outward visible signs and seals of baptism and the Lord’s Supper – all of these have the purpose of uniting us to God, by joining us to Jesus Christ.  These are the ways and means which God has ordained to bring us into union with Jesus Christ.  Apart from these outward means of the visible church, we’re not joined to Christ.

Therefore, we must let nothing stop us from identifying with Jesus Christ through His body the visible church.  In order to be saved, we must be in covenant with Jesus Christ.  We must be members of His body, the visible church.

This is not simply one man’s opinion.  We’ve seen that this is the consensus of many orthodox teachers throughout church history.  We’ll see even more evidence for this next Sunday, since there’s so much more evidence to present.

The Scriptures teach us this.  Our confessions interpret the Scriptures as teaching this.  Our forefathers in the faith interpret the Scriptures as teaching this.  Our Orthodox Presbyterian leaders interpret the Scriptures as teaching this.  And all of these witnesses agree: Membership in the visible church is not optional.  It is necessary for us to join the church if we are to have any sure hope of salvation.  Because, as our confession says that the visible church is that body, “outside of which there is no ordinary possibility of salvation.”


A Festival of Lessons and Carols

Why Lessons & Carols?

Christmas and the Covenant

Grace and Peace Presbyterian Church will hold our annual Festival of Nine Lessons & Carols  Christmas Eve, December 24th at 7 pm.

The value of Lessons & Carols, in short, is this: Lessons and Carols tangibly reminds us of the unity of Scripture, with the story of Christ and the incarnation of our Lord at its very center. Promise and fulfillment is the basic pattern of the Old and New Testaments of the Scriptures, and that this pattern should guide all our reading and interpretation and application of these texts. This value is not to be underestimated, as we live in a day of biblical illiteracy.

Briefly, Lessons and Carols is a service of nine scripture readings interspersed with the singing of Christmas carols. The most famous and perhaps “original” L&C was held on Christmas Eve at King’s College Cambridge in 1918, and every year there since.

A General Thanksgiving

Almighty God, Father of all mercies, we your unworthy servants give you most humble and hearty thanks for all your goodness and loving-kindness to us and to all men. We bless you for our creation, preservation, and all the blessings of this life; but above all for your inestimable love in the redemption of the world by our Lord Jesus Christ, for the means of grace, and for the hope of glory. And, we beseech you, give us that due sense of all your mercies, that our hearts may be truly thankful; and that we show forth your praise, not only with our lips, but in our lives, by giving up ourselves to your service, and by walking before you in holiness and righteousness all our days; through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with you and the Holy Spirit, be all honor and glory, world without end. Amen.

Common Prayer ca. 1547

Counseling and Worship


Do counseling and what we have come to call one’s “style” of worship have anything to do with each other?

Written by Terry Johnson | Saturday, November 23, 2013

 Readers of the Journal of Biblical Counseling and similar publications will gain invaluable wisdom by studying its articles each quarter. As they apply in counseling what they learn, they may see significant results in their counselees in the short term. However, unless their counselees are attending churches which are determined to read, preach, sing, and pray God’s word, and administer the “visible word,” the sacraments, morning and evening, fifty-two weeks a year, year in and year out, their efforts are likely to be blunted.

Since the publication of Jay Adam’s Competent to Counsel in the 1970’s, a revolution in counseling has occurred among American evangelicals. So has a revolution in worship.

Do counseling and what we have come to call one’s “style” of worship have anything to do with each other? Are there ways of worship that are more congenial to the aims of biblical counseling than others? “Of course,” experienced counselors might say. “We pay close attention to the ministry of the word and understand that it is vital for equipping both counselors and counselees” (see Journal of Biblical Counseling, Winter 2003). “We strongly urge our counselees to attend Bible-teaching and preaching evangelical churches.” This answer, which I assume most biblical counselors would give, is a proper answer, as far as it goes. The question is, does it go far enough? Is enough attention being paid to what is happening in the rest of the worship service at those churches? Does it matter if substantial portions of the Bible are being read? Or if biblical and theologically rich songs are being sung? Or if significant time is being given to biblical prayer? Or if the sacraments are being regularly and biblically administered? There is, after all, more to the “means of grace” than preaching.

Let’s imagine Counselor Bob and his Counselee Billy concluding their sixth and final counseling session together. Bob asks Billy about his church. It turns out that Billy attends a local evangelical church. Five years ago this church adopted an exciting worship format complete with a worship team and praise band. Services there start with a 20 minute song set which begins very loud and hard driving, gradually becomes softer and more contemplative. The tone of the service is casual, upbeat, and positive. The worship leader is gregarious and winsome. The preacher is relevant, has a wonderful sense of humor, and is practical. The service is fast paced and seeker-aware. The church has experienced dramatic growth. However little time is given to prayer or Scripture reading in deference to the seekers. The music is mostly performed by professionals. The songs the congregation does sing have irregular rhythms, seem to be designed for soloists, and offer only a couple of lines of content. The sacraments are administered periodically on Wednesday nights. Sermons are topical.

Should Counselor Bob have an opinion about Counselee Billy’s choice of churches? Here are several observations which we might see as vital for our consideration.

Three observations

First, the Bible is the manual for all counseling and discipleship. It provides both the methods and contents by which believers are guided and nourished. By the “living and abiding” word of God believers are born again (1 Peter 1:23-25). By the “word of Christ” believers come to faith (Romans 10:17). By the “pure milk of the word” believers grow (1 Peter 2:2). By the word of Truth believers are sanctified (John 17:17). By the Scripture believers are “equipped for every good work” (1 Timothy 3:16). I say nothing new here. The Christian Counseling & Education Foundation (CCEF) and the National Association of Nouthetic Counseling (NANC) both have affirmed from the beginning the irreplaceable role of Scripture in Christian counseling and discipleship. .

Second, once outside of the counseling room exposure to the Bible for most believers takes place primarily in public worship services. The recent revelations at Willow Creek (“Reveal: Where Are You”) shouldn’t shock any experienced pastor. Despite all the effort put into small groups, discipleship, quiet times, and personal Bible study over the last 25 years, most Christians are not “self-feeders,” as the Willow Creekers call it. Excepting a small minority, most of those attending Sunday services don’t read their Bibles between services or participate in discipleship or Bible study groups. They don’t and they won’t. Yet they need to feed on the Scriptures if they are to grow. When will they? How? Counselors: the word of God either reaches your counselees in the church’s public worship services or, by and large, it doesn’t reach them at all. No amount of inspiring and motivating, of begging and pleading, of technological creativity and programmatic excitement is going to change that reality by more than a handful of percentage points. Non-seeker churches need not gloat over the travails of the seeker churches. To a greater or lesser degree, we all live with this stubborn fact.

Third, realistic ministries will take into consideration observation #1, that we grow by the word of God,  and #2, that exposure to the word of God for most people occurs primarily in public worship services. Realistic ministries (and counselors) will refuse to bury their heads in the sand, or to confuse hopes with facts or wishes with data; they will adjust their expectations about the levels at which Christian people can be expected to engage in disciplined Bible study. Similarly, realistic churches will determine to reach their congregations with the word of Christ in the public services lest they fail to reach them at all. Let’s put this observation positively: they will realize that they must reach the people with the word of God in the public services because in most cases there is unlikely to be another venue in which to do so. Consequently biblical counselors should be intensely concerned about the “style” of worship in the churches their counselees attend. Why? Because, on the one hand, they counsel with the conviction that Scripture is the key to their counselees’ growth. On the other hand, they are (or should be) realists who are aware that the primary source of scriptural nourishment for most counselees will be the public worship services of their churches.

Worship content

Observations 1-3 lead inexorably to our next question. Given our passion for restorative counseling and spiritual wholeness, how can we avoid discussing, caring about, or even advocacy respecting what goes on in worship services beyond preaching? In other words, how can we, as counselors, avoid the worship wars? Trace the trajectory of biblical content in evangelical worship services over the last 100 years, and especially the last 25 years. R. Kent Hughes, former pastor of College Church in Wheaton, claims that we are witnessing today a “debiblicizing of corporate worship.”[1] The undeniable (though anecdotal) facts are that less Scripture is read, less is sung, less is preached, and less is prayed. If observation #1 is true, if indeed we are born again, grow, and are sanctified by God’s word, this development is an unmitigated disaster, the church deliberately having made the astonishing determination to deprive itself of Christ’s appointed source of life and growth. This is not the time to probe too deeply into why this is being done but that it is with stunning universality is a fact not to be denied.

Readers of the Journal of Biblical Counseling and similar publications will gain invaluable wisdom by studying its articles each quarter. As they apply in counseling what they learn, they may see significant results in their counselees in the short term. However, unless their counselees are attending churches which are determined to read, preach, sing, and pray God’s word, and administer the “visible word,” the sacraments, morning and evening, fifty-two weeks a year, year in and year out, their efforts are likely to be blunted.

This brings us to our main point. Historic Protestant worship features what the years and locusts have eroded. It offers substantial Bible reading when few churches are reading Scripture beyond the couple of verses upon which the sermon is based; expository (even sequential) preaching in an era of topical and therapeutic sermons; extensive biblical prayer even as public prayer is vanishing; and Bible-rich songs (classic hymnody and metrical psalmody) rather than the subjective and repetitious genre that dominates the church landscape today; and it offers the regular administration of the sacraments. It calls the people to worship with Scripture, collects tithes with Scripture, and pronounces the benediction with Scripture. It begins with Scripture, ends with Scripture, and its elements are saturated with Scripture. Worship is so much more than “style” preferences. Our Protestant forefathers were convinced that the word of God was “living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword,” the “sword of the Spirit” and the “power of God” (Hebrews 4:12; Ephesians 6:17; Romans 1:16). Through the word of God, they believed, the people of God would be converted, transformed, and fed. Their worship reflected that conviction, not just in preaching, but in reading, singing, and praying Scripture as well. So should ours. So should be the worship of the churches we commend to our counselees.

Christian counselors: is it not the case that our counselees will only be sustained in good spiritual health by a steady diet of God’s word? Is it not also the case that they are only likely to receive this diet at churches that order their public worship services along the lines of classical Protestantism?

Terry Johnson is a Teaching Elder in the Presbyterian Church in America and serves as Senior Pastor of the Independent Presbyterian Church in Savannah, Ga.

“Lex orandi, lex credendi”

Rev. Dr. Edd Cathey-adapted from Pastor J. Strey

“Lex orandi, lex credendi” is a Latin phrase that literally means, “The law of praying [is] the law of believing.”  The idea behind the phrase is that the way you pray says something about, and even shapes, what you believe.  Practically speaking, this observation can be extended beyond prayer to worship in general.  The way you worship as a Christian congregation says something about your beliefs.

“Lex orandi, lex credendi” is a shorthand version of the original Latin phrase, “Legem credendi lex statuat supplicandi.”  This phrase is attributed to Prosper of Aquitaine, a 5th century lay theologian, Christian writer and student of Augustine. A translation of that phrase is, “The law of praying establishes the law of believing.”  The original phrase is even stronger than the more common, shortened version: The idea is that the way you pray and worship actually establishes what you believe.

It’s no secret that many churches today have been reexamining their worship practices.  A careful analysis of what we’re doing and why we’re doing it is a good thing.  We don’t want to get ourselves into a liturgical rut, nor do we want to jump on the next bandwagon just because it’s passing by.  Now, before we do what we’ve always done, or before we change anything, we need to understand our own theology and how worship reflects, or fails to reflect and support what we believe.

Take the example of singing multiple songs at the beginning of worship.  There is no law that says you can’t sing multiple songs at the start of worship.  Scripture doesn’t tell us how we should specifically arrange the songs in our service.  We have the freedom to sing songs wherever we choose in the service, or even to sing at all.  And since there are more than a few churches pulling in big numbers each week that begin worship with multiple praise songs, perhaps that’s something we should look into.

So let’s look into it.  Many people do not realize that the whole idea of singing multiple songs in worship comes out of Pentecostal thinking.  The following quotation from Donald Hustad warns non-charismatics that they should not copy charismatic worship ideas in their own services unless they want to adopt charismatic theology (emphasis mine):

Praise and worship music itself originated with the Charismatic Renewal Movement; all of the approaches identified in these chapters … are carefully devised according to charismatic theology and Scripture interpretation and are expected to lead to characteristic Pentecostal experiences. … Charismatic believers have a right to develop their own worship to match their own theology and exegesis, and they have done this well. Non-charismatics should not thoughtlessly copy or imitate their worship formulae, unless they expect to enter the same “Holy of Holies” in the same way. Instead, they should develop their worship rationale based on their scriptural understanding, and then sing up to their own theology!

In many Non-reformed Evangelical circles, music and prayer are the “means of grace,” i.e. the way God comes among us and strengthens our faith.  For Reformed believers, the means of grace is the gospel, the message of the forgiveness of sins through Jesus’ redeeming work; the gospel message is administered to us in the Word and the Sacraments.

If you look at a Pentecostal or Evangelical service, it is quite clear that singing and praying are the “means of grace.”  Multiple songs are sung to call God into our presence (following a curious misinterpretation of Psalm 22:3.) Prayers are scattered throughout the songs and the service.  Obviously I’m not against prayer, but the content of the prayers often reflects the idea that we are praying God into our presence.

Let’s take the content of the songs out of the discussion. Let’s simply examine the practice of multiple praise songs at the start of the service.  Again, there is no law saying “thou shalt” or “thou shalt not.”  But consider these factors.  American Christianity is heavily influenced by the Pentecostal/Evangelical movement.  If Evangelicals believe that we can sing ourselves into God’s presence, and if they include a series of songs to do that at the beginning of their worship, and if Reformation Churches subsequently borrow that idea from Evangelical worship and place it into reformed worship, what will be the long-term effect on Reformed churchgoers?  How could they not, over time, be led to think that music is the means of grace?  Even if the pastor never said or taught anything remotely close to that, the influence of Evangelicalism in American Christianity and the continuous use of their worship concepts will teach and reinforce a bad understanding of the means of grace over time. “Lex ordandi, lex credendi.”

An aside: Someone may argue that if we shouldn’t borrow from the Evangelicals, we also shouldn’t borrow the liturgy from the Roman Catholic Church.  A few things should be noted.  First, the basic liturgy’s so-called Western Rite was around long before Rome’s false doctrine.  The liturgy was not based on false doctrine, and Reformed versions of the liturgy do not incorporate any later elements that reflect Rome’s theology.  Second, Catholics, Lutherans and Reformed both acknowledge that the Word and Sacraments are the means of grace, so it’s no surprise to see some similarities — though not total similarity.  Finally, while Catholic and Reformed liturgical outlines are similar, there is quite a bit of difference in specific content between the two.  Compare the confession of sin and pardon at the start of the service, or the Eucharistic Prayers (Prayers of Thanksgiving) prior to the reception of the Lord’s Supper. Rome’s prayers turn the Supper into our sacrifice to God; Reformed prayers keep the Supper as the sacrament of Christ’s once for all sacrifice for us).

Many other examples could be offered about the way that worship practices can affect our beliefs, whether they are practices borrowed from other denominations or practices developed within a church or denomination.  But the point should be clear.  Whether it is a developed or borrowed practice, every worship practice needs to be carefully examined to see if we’re communicating the gospel message clearly and without compromise.  “Lex orandi, lex credendi.”